2004 RICHARD AXEL, and LINDA B BUCK for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system 2003 PAUL C. LAUTERBUR, and SIR PETER MANSFIELD for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging. 2002 SYDNEY BRENNER, H. ROBERT HORVITZ and JOHN E. SULSTON for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death. 2001 LELAND H. HARTWELL, R. TIMOTHY HUNT and PAUL M. NURSE for their discoveries of "key regulators of the cell cycle." 2000 ARVID CARLSSON, PAUL GREENGARD and ERIC KANDEL for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system. 1999 GÜNTER BLOBEL, for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell. 1998 ROBERT F. FURCHGOTT, LOUIS J. IGNARRO and FERID MURAD for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system. 1997 STANLEY B. PRUSINER for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection 1996 PETER C. DOHERTY and ROLF M. ZINKERNAGEL for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence. 1995 EDWARD B. LEWIS, CHRISTIANE NﾜSSLEIN-VOLHARD and ERIC F. WIESCHAUS for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development. 1994 ALFRED G. GILMAN and MARTIN RODBELL for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells. 1993 RICHARD J. ROBERTS and PHILLIP A. SHARP for their independent discoveries of split genes. 1992 EDMOND H. FISCHER and EDWIN G. KREBS for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism. 1991 ERWIN NEHER and BERT SAKMANN for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells. 1990 JOSEPH E. MURRAY and E. DONNALL THOMAS for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease. 1989 J. MICHAEL BISHOP and HAROLD E. VARMUS for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. 1988 SIR JAMES W. BLACK , GERTRUDE B. ELION and GEORGE H. HITCHINGS for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment. 1987 SUSUMU TONEGAWA for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity. 1986 STANLEY COHEN and RITA LEVI-MONTALCINI for their discoveries of growth factors. 1985 MICHAEL S. BROWN and JOSEPH L. GOLDSTEIN for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. 1984 NIELS K. JERNE , GEORGES J.F. KﾖHLER and CﾉSAR MILSTEIN for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies. 1983 BARBARA MC CLINTOCK for her discovery of mobile genetic elements. 1982 SUNE K. BERGSTRﾖM , BENGT I. SAMUELSSON and SIR JOHN R. VANE for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances. 1981 ROGER W. SPERRY for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres. DAVID H. HUBEL and TORSTEN N. WIESEL for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system. 1980 BARUJ BENACERRAF , JEAN DAUSSET and GEORGE D. SNELL for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions. 1979 ALAN M. CORMACK and SIR GODFREY N. HOUNSFIELD for the development of computer assisted tomography. 1978 WERNER ARBER , DANIEL NATHANS and HAMILTON O. SMITH for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics. 1977 ROGER GUILLEMIN and ANDREW V. SCHALLY for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain ROSALYN YALOW for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones. 1976 BARUCH S. BLUMBERG and D. CARLETON GAJDUSEK for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases. 1975 DAVID BALTIMORE , RENATO DULBECCO and HOWARD MARTIN TEMIN for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell. 1974 ALBERT CLAUDE , CHRISTIAN DE DUVE and GEORGE E. PALADE for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell. 1973 KARL VON FRISCH , KONRAD LORENZ and NIKOLAAS TINBERGEN for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns. 1972 GERALD M. EDELMAN and RODNEY R. PORTER for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies. 1971 EARL W. JR. SUTHERLAND for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones. 1970 SIR BERNARD KATZ , ULF VON EULER and JULIUS AXELROD for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation. 1969 MAX DELBRﾜCK , ALFRED D. HERSHEY and SALVADOR E. LURIA for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the gentic structure of viruses. 1968 ROBERT W. HOLLEY , HAR GOBIND KHORANA and MARSHALL W. NIRENBERG for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis. 1967 RAGNAR GRANIT , HALDAN KEFFER HARTLINE and GEORGE WALD for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye. 1966 PEYTON ROUS for his discovery of tumorinducing viruses CHARLES BRENTON HUGGINS for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer. 1965 FRANﾇOIS JACOB , ANDRﾉ LWOFF and JACOUES MONOD for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis. 1964 KONRAD BLOCH and FEODOR LYNEN for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. 1963 SIR JOHN CAREW ECCLES , SIR ALAN LLOYD HODGKIN and SIR ANDREW FIELDING HUXLEY for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane. 1962 FRANCIS HARRY COMPTON CRICK , JAMES DEWEY WATSON and MAURICE HUGH FREDERICK WILKINS for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nuclear acids and its significance for information transfer in living material. 1961 GEORG VON BﾉKﾉSY for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea. 1960 SIR FRANK MACFARLANE BURNET and SIR PETER BRIAN MEDAWAR for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance. 1959 SEVERO OCHOA and ARTHUR KORNBERG for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxiribonucleic acid. 1958 GEORGE WELLS BEADLE and EDWARD LAWRIE TATUM for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events JOSHUA LEDERBERG for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria. 1957 DANIEL BOVET for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles. 1956 ANDRﾉ FRﾉDﾉRIC COURNAND , WERNER FORSSMANN and DICKINSON W. RICHARDS for their discoveries concerning heart catherization and pathological changes in the circulatory system. 1955 AXEL HUGO THEODOR THEORELL for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes. 1954 JOHN FRANKLIN ENDERS , THOMAS HUCKLE WELLER and FREDERICK CHAPMAN ROBBINS for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue. 1953 SIR HANS ADOLF KREBS for his discovery of the citric acid cycle FRITZ ALBERT LIPMANN for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism. 1952 SELMAN ABRAHAM WAKSMAN for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis. 1951 MAX THEILER for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it. 1950 EDWARD CALVIN KENDALL , TADEUS REICHSTEIN and PHILIP SHOWALTER HENCH for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects. 1949 WALTER RUDOLF HESS for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs ANTONIO CAETANO DE ABREU FREIRE EGAS MONIZ for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses. 1948 PAUL HERMANN MﾜLLER for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arth ropods. 1947 CARL FERDINAND CORI and GERTY THERESA CORI n馥 RADNITZ for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen BERNARDO ALBERTO HOUSSAY for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar. 1946 HERMANN JOSEPH MULLER for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation. 1945 SIR ALEXANDER FLEMING , SIR ERNST BORIS CHAIN and LORD HOWARD WALTER FLOREY for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases. 1944 JOSEPH ERLANGER and HERBERT SPENCER GASSER for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres. 1943 HENRIK CARL PETER DAM for his discovery of vitamin K. EDWARD ADELBERT DOISY for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K. 1942-1940 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1939 GERHARD DOMAGK for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil. (Caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award, but later received the diploma and the medal.) 1938 CORNEILLE JEAN FRANﾇOIS HEYMANS for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration. 1937 ALBERT SZENT-GYﾖRGYI VON NAGYRAPOLT for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid. 1936 SIR HENRY HALLETT DALE and OTTO LOEWI for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses. 1935 HANS SPEMANN for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development. 1934 GEORGE HOYT WHIPPLE , GEORGE RICHARDS MINOT and WILLIAM PARRY MURPHY for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia. 1933 THOMAS HUNT MORGAN for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity. 1932 SIR CHARLES SCOTT SHERRINGTON and LORD EDGAR DOUGLAS ADRIAN for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons. 1931 OTTO HEINRICH WARBURG for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme. 1930 KARL LANDSTEINER for his discovery of human blood groups. 1929 CHRISTIAAN EIJKMAN for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin SIR FREDERICK GOWLAND HOPKINS for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins. 1928 CHARLES JULES HENRI NICOLLE for his work on typhus. 1927 JULIUS WAGNER-JAUREGG for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica. 1926 JOHANNES ANDREAS GRIB FIBIGER for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma. 1925 The prize money for 1925 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1924 WILLEM EINTHOVEN for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram. 1923 SIR FREDERICK GRANT BANTING and JOHN JAMES RICHARD MACLEOD for the discovery of insulin. 1922 SIR ARCHIBALD VIVIAN HILL for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle OTTO FRITZ MEYERHOF for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactid acid in the muscle. 1921 The prize money for 1921 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1920 SCHACK AUGUST STEENBERGER KROGH for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism. 1919 JULES BORDET for his discoveries relating to immunity. 1918-1915 The prize money for 1918-1915 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1914 ROBERT BﾁRﾁNY for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus. 1913 CHARLES ROBERT RICHET in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis. 1912 ALEXIS CARREL in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood-vessels and organs. 1911 ALLVAR GULLSTRAND for his work on the dioptrics of the eye. 1910 ALBRECHT KOSSEL in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances. 1909 EMIL THEODOR KOCHER for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland. 1908 ILYA ILYICH MECHNIKOV and PAUL EHRLICH in recognition of their work on immunity. 1907 CHARLES LOUIS ALPHONSE LAVERAN in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases. 1906 CAMILLO GOLGI and SANTIAGO RAMON Y CAJAL in recognition of their work on the stucture of the nervous system. 1905 ROBERT KOCH for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis. 1904 IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged. 1903 NIELS RYBERG FINSEN in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science. 1902 SIR RONALD ROSS for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful resesarch on this disease and methods of combating it. 1901 EMIL ADOLF VON BEHRING for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths.