Human Biology Nobel Winners: Physiology & Medicine

Discussion in 'Human Biology' started by JcMinJapan, Oct 10, 2004.

  1. JcMinJapan

    JcMinJapan Premium Member

    2004
    RICHARD AXEL, and LINDA B BUCK for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system

    2003
    PAUL C. LAUTERBUR, and SIR PETER MANSFIELD for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging.

    2002
    SYDNEY BRENNER, H. ROBERT HORVITZ and JOHN E. SULSTON for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death.

    2001
    LELAND H. HARTWELL, R. TIMOTHY HUNT and PAUL M. NURSE for their discoveries of "key regulators of the cell cycle."

    2000
    ARVID CARLSSON, PAUL GREENGARD and ERIC KANDEL for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.

    1999
    GÜNTER BLOBEL, for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell.

    1998
    ROBERT F. FURCHGOTT, LOUIS J. IGNARRO and FERID MURAD for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system.

    1997
    STANLEY B. PRUSINER for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection

    1996
    PETER C. DOHERTY and ROLF M. ZINKERNAGEL for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence.

    1995
    EDWARD B. LEWIS, CHRISTIANE NワSSLEIN-VOLHARD and ERIC F. WIESCHAUS for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development.

    1994
    ALFRED G. GILMAN and MARTIN RODBELL for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells.

    1993
    RICHARD J. ROBERTS and PHILLIP A. SHARP for their independent discoveries of split genes.

    1992
    EDMOND H. FISCHER and EDWIN G. KREBS for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism.

    1991
    ERWIN NEHER and BERT SAKMANN for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells.

    1990
    JOSEPH E. MURRAY and E. DONNALL THOMAS for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease.

    1989
    J. MICHAEL BISHOP and HAROLD E. VARMUS for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes.

    1988
    SIR JAMES W. BLACK , GERTRUDE B. ELION and GEORGE H. HITCHINGS for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment.

    1987
    SUSUMU TONEGAWA for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity.

    1986
    STANLEY COHEN and RITA LEVI-MONTALCINI for their discoveries of growth factors.

    1985
    MICHAEL S. BROWN and JOSEPH L. GOLDSTEIN for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism.

    1984
    NIELS K. JERNE , GEORGES J.F. KヨHLER and CノSAR MILSTEIN for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies.

    1983
    BARBARA MC CLINTOCK for her discovery of mobile genetic elements.

    1982
    SUNE K. BERGSTRヨM , BENGT I. SAMUELSSON and SIR JOHN R. VANE for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances.

    1981
    ROGER W. SPERRY for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres.

    DAVID H. HUBEL and TORSTEN N. WIESEL for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system.

    1980
    BARUJ BENACERRAF , JEAN DAUSSET and GEORGE D. SNELL for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions.

    1979
    ALAN M. CORMACK and SIR GODFREY N. HOUNSFIELD for the development of computer assisted tomography.

    1978
    WERNER ARBER , DANIEL NATHANS and HAMILTON O. SMITH for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics.

    1977
    ROGER GUILLEMIN and ANDREW V. SCHALLY for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain

    ROSALYN YALOW for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones.

    1976
    BARUCH S. BLUMBERG and D. CARLETON GAJDUSEK for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases.

    1975
    DAVID BALTIMORE , RENATO DULBECCO and HOWARD MARTIN TEMIN for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell.

    1974
    ALBERT CLAUDE , CHRISTIAN DE DUVE and GEORGE E. PALADE for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell.

    1973
    KARL VON FRISCH , KONRAD LORENZ and NIKOLAAS TINBERGEN for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns.

    1972
    GERALD M. EDELMAN and RODNEY R. PORTER for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies.

    1971
    EARL W. JR. SUTHERLAND for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones.

    1970
    SIR BERNARD KATZ , ULF VON EULER and JULIUS AXELROD for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation.

    1969
    MAX DELBRワCK , ALFRED D. HERSHEY and SALVADOR E. LURIA for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the gentic structure of viruses.

    1968
    ROBERT W. HOLLEY , HAR GOBIND KHORANA and MARSHALL W. NIRENBERG for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.

    1967
    RAGNAR GRANIT , HALDAN KEFFER HARTLINE and GEORGE WALD for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye.

    1966
    PEYTON ROUS for his discovery of tumorinducing viruses

    CHARLES BRENTON HUGGINS for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer.

    1965
    FRANヌOIS JACOB , ANDRノ LWOFF and JACOUES MONOD for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis.

    1964
    KONRAD BLOCH and FEODOR LYNEN for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.

    1963
    SIR JOHN CAREW ECCLES , SIR ALAN LLOYD HODGKIN and SIR ANDREW FIELDING HUXLEY for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane.

    1962
    FRANCIS HARRY COMPTON CRICK , JAMES DEWEY WATSON and MAURICE HUGH FREDERICK WILKINS for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nuclear acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.

    1961
    GEORG VON BノKノSY for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea.

    1960
    SIR FRANK MACFARLANE BURNET and SIR PETER BRIAN MEDAWAR for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance.

    1959
    SEVERO OCHOA and ARTHUR KORNBERG for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxiribonucleic acid.

    1958
    GEORGE WELLS BEADLE and EDWARD LAWRIE TATUM for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events

    JOSHUA LEDERBERG for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria.

    1957
    DANIEL BOVET for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles.

    1956
    ANDRノ FRノDノRIC COURNAND , WERNER FORSSMANN and DICKINSON W. RICHARDS for their discoveries concerning heart catherization and pathological changes in the circulatory system.

    1955
    AXEL HUGO THEODOR THEORELL for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes.

    1954
    JOHN FRANKLIN ENDERS , THOMAS HUCKLE WELLER and FREDERICK CHAPMAN ROBBINS for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue.

    1953
    SIR HANS ADOLF KREBS for his discovery of the citric acid cycle

    FRITZ ALBERT LIPMANN for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism.

    1952
    SELMAN ABRAHAM WAKSMAN for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis.

    1951
    MAX THEILER for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it.

    1950
    EDWARD CALVIN KENDALL , TADEUS REICHSTEIN and PHILIP SHOWALTER HENCH for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects.

    1949
    WALTER RUDOLF HESS for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs

    ANTONIO CAETANO DE ABREU FREIRE EGAS MONIZ for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses.

    1948
    PAUL HERMANN MワLLER for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arth ropods.

    1947
    CARL FERDINAND CORI and GERTY THERESA CORI n馥 RADNITZ for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen

    BERNARDO ALBERTO HOUSSAY for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar.

    1946
    HERMANN JOSEPH MULLER for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation.

    1945
    SIR ALEXANDER FLEMING , SIR ERNST BORIS CHAIN and LORD HOWARD WALTER FLOREY for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases.

    1944
    JOSEPH ERLANGER and HERBERT SPENCER GASSER for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres.

    1943
    HENRIK CARL PETER DAM for his discovery of vitamin K.

    EDWARD ADELBERT DOISY for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K.

    1942-1940
    The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.

    1939
    GERHARD DOMAGK for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil. (Caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award, but later received the diploma and the medal.)

    1938
    CORNEILLE JEAN FRANヌOIS HEYMANS for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration.

    1937
    ALBERT SZENT-GYヨRGYI VON NAGYRAPOLT for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid.

    1936
    SIR HENRY HALLETT DALE and OTTO LOEWI for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses.

    1935
    HANS SPEMANN for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development.

    1934
    GEORGE HOYT WHIPPLE , GEORGE RICHARDS MINOT and WILLIAM PARRY MURPHY for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia.

    1933
    THOMAS HUNT MORGAN for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity.

    1932
    SIR CHARLES SCOTT SHERRINGTON and LORD EDGAR DOUGLAS ADRIAN for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons.

    1931
    OTTO HEINRICH WARBURG for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme.

    1930
    KARL LANDSTEINER for his discovery of human blood groups.

    1929
    CHRISTIAAN EIJKMAN for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin

    SIR FREDERICK GOWLAND HOPKINS for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins.

    1928
    CHARLES JULES HENRI NICOLLE for his work on typhus.

    1927
    JULIUS WAGNER-JAUREGG for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica.

    1926
    JOHANNES ANDREAS GRIB FIBIGER for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma.

    1925
    The prize money for 1925 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

    1924
    WILLEM EINTHOVEN for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram.

    1923
    SIR FREDERICK GRANT BANTING and JOHN JAMES RICHARD MACLEOD for the discovery of insulin.

    1922
    SIR ARCHIBALD VIVIAN HILL for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle


    OTTO FRITZ MEYERHOF for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactid acid in the muscle.

    1921
    The prize money for 1921 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

    1920
    SCHACK AUGUST STEENBERGER KROGH for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism.

    1919
    JULES BORDET for his discoveries relating to immunity.

    1918-1915
    The prize money for 1918-1915 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

    1914
    ROBERT BチRチNY for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus.

    1913
    CHARLES ROBERT RICHET in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis.

    1912
    ALEXIS CARREL in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood-vessels and organs.

    1911
    ALLVAR GULLSTRAND for his work on the dioptrics of the eye.

    1910
    ALBRECHT KOSSEL in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances.

    1909
    EMIL THEODOR KOCHER for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland.

    1908
    ILYA ILYICH MECHNIKOV and PAUL EHRLICH in recognition of their work on immunity.

    1907
    CHARLES LOUIS ALPHONSE LAVERAN in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases.

    1906
    CAMILLO GOLGI and SANTIAGO RAMON Y CAJAL in recognition of their work on the stucture of the nervous system.

    1905
    ROBERT KOCH for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis.

    1904
    IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged.

    1903
    NIELS RYBERG FINSEN in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science.

    1902
    SIR RONALD ROSS for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful resesarch on this disease and methods of combating it.

    1901
    EMIL ADOLF VON BEHRING for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths.