2003 SHIRIN EBADI for her efforts for democracy and human rights 2002 JIMMY CARTER JR., former President of the United States of America, for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development 2001 UNITED NATIONS, New York, NY, USA KOFI ANNAN, United Nations Secretary General 2000 KIM DAE JUNG for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular. 1999 DOCTORS WITHOUT BORDERS (MÉDECINS SANS FRONTIÈRES), Brussels, Belgium. 1998 JOHN HUME and DAVID TRIMBLE for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland. 1997 INTERNATIONAL CAMPAIGN TO BAN LANDMINES (ICBL) and JODY WILLIAMS for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines. 1996 CARLOS FELIPE XIMENES BELO and JOSE RAMOS-HORTA for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor. 1995 JOSEPH ROTBLAT and to the PUGWASH CONFERENCES ON SCIENCE AND WORLD AFFAIRS for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and in the longer run to eliminate such arms. 1994 YASSER ARAFAT , Chairman of the Executive Committee of the PLO, President of the Palestinian National Authority. SHIMON PERES , Foreign Minister of Israel. YITZHAK RABIN , Prime Minister of Israel. for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East. 1993 NELSON MANDELA Leader of the ANC. FREDRIK WILLEM DE KLERK President of the Republic of South Africa. 1992 RIGOBERTA MENCHU TUM, Guatemala. Campaigner for human rights, especially for indigenous peoples. 1991 AUNG SAN SUU KYI, Burma. Oppositional leader, human rights advocate. 1990 MIKHAIL SERGEYEVICH GORBACHEV , President of the USSR, helped to bring the Cold War to an end. 1989 THE 14TH DALAI LAMA (TENZIN GYATSO) , Tibet. Religious and political leader of the Tibetan people. 1988 THE UNITED NATIONS PEACE-KEEPING FORCES New York, NY, U.S.A. 1987 OSCAR ARIAS SANCHEZ , Costa Rica, President of Costa Rica, initiator of peace negotiations in Central America. 1986 ELIE WIESEL , U.S.A., Chairman of 'The President's Commission on the Holocaust'. Author, humanitarian. 1985 INTERNATIONAL PHYSICIANS FOR THE PREVENTION OF NUCLEAR WAR Boston, MA, U.S.A. 1984 DESMOND MPILO TUTU , South Africa, Bishop of Johannesburg, former Secretary General South African Council of Churches (S.A.C.C.). for his work against apartheid. 1983 LECH WALESA , Poland. Founder of Solidarity, campaigner for human rights. 1982 ALVA MYRDAL , former Cabinet Minister, diplomat, delegate to United Nations General Assembly on Disarmament, writer. ALFONSO GARCﾍA ROBLES , diplomat, delegate to the United Nations General Assembly on Disarmament, former Secretary for Foreign Affairs . 1981 OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES Geneva, Switzerland. 1980 ADOLFO PEREZ ESQUIVEL , Argentina, architect, sculptor and human rights leader. 1979 MOTHER TERESA , India, Leader of the Order of the Missionaries of Charity. 1978 MOHAMED ANWAR AL-SADAT , President of the Arab Republic of Egypt. MENACHEM BEGIN , Prime Minister of Israel for jointly negotiating peace between Egypt and Israel. 1977 AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL London, Great Britain. A worldwide organization for the protection of the rights of prisoners of conscience. 1976 BETTY WILLIAMS and MAIREAD CORRIGAN Founders of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People). 1975 ANDREI DMITRIEVICH SAKHAROV , Soviet nuclear physicist. Campaigner for human rights. 1974 SEﾁN MAC BRIDE , President of the International Peace Bureau, Geneva, and the Commission of Namibia, United Nations, New York. EISAKU SATO , Prime Minister of Japan. 1973 HENRY A. KISSINGER , Secretary of State, State Department, Washington. LE DUC THO , Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. (Declined the prize.) for jointly negotiating the Vietnam peace accord in 1973. 1972 The prize money for 1972 was allocated to the Main Fund. 1971 #@!&% BRANDT , Federal Republic of Germany, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, initiator of West Germany's Ostpolitik, embodying a new attitude towards Eastern Europe and East Germany. 1970 NORMAN BORLAUG , Led research at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico City. 1969 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (I.L.O.) Geneva. 1968 RENﾉ CASSIN , President of the European Court for Human Rights . 1967-1966 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1965 UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF) New York, founded by U.N. in 1946. An international aid organization. 1964 MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. , leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, campaigner for civil rights. 1963 COMITﾉ INTERNATIONAL DE LA CROIX-ROUGE (INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE REDCROSS) Geneva, founded 1863. LIGUE DES SOCIﾉTﾉS DE LA CROIX-ROUGE (LEAGUE OF RED CROSS SOCIETIES) Geneva. 1962 LINUS CARL PAULING , California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA. Campaigner especially for an end to nuclear weapons tests. 1961 DAG HJALMAR AGNE CARL HAMMARSKJﾖLD , Secretary General of the United Nations (awarded the Prize posthumously). 1960 ALBERT JOHN LUTULI , President of the South Africal liberation movement, the African National Congress. 1959 PHILIP J. NOEL-BAKER , Great Britain, Member of Parliament, life long ardent worker for international peace and co-operation . 1958 GEORGES HENRI PIRE , Belgium, Father of the Dominican Order, Leader of the relief organization for refugees, l'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde. 1957 LESTER BOWLES PEARSON , former Secretary of State for External Affairs of Canada, President 7th Session of the United Nations General Assembly . 1956-1955 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1954 OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES Geneva, an international relief organization, founded by U.N. in 1951. 1953 GEORGE CATLETT MARSHALL , General, President American Red Cross, ex-Secretary of State and of Defense, Delegate to the U.N., Originator of the Marshall Plan. 1952 ALBERT SCHWEITZER , Missionary surgeon, Founder Lambar駭・Hospital in R駱ublique du Gabon. 1951 LﾉON JOUHAUX , France, President of the trade union C.G.T. Force Ouvri鑽e. President of the International Committee of the European Council, Vice President of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, Vice President of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO Council, delegate to the UN. 1950 RALPH BUNCHE , Professor Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, Director of the UN Division of Trusteeship, Acting Mediator in Palestine 1948. 1949 LORD JOHN BOYD ORR OF BRECHIN , Physician, Alimentary Politician, prominent organizer and Director General Food and Agricultural Organization, President National Peace Council and World Union of Peace Organizations. 1948 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1947 THE FRIENDS SERVICE COUNCIL (The Quakers), London. Founded in 1647. THE AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE (The Quakers), Washington. The society's first official meeting was held in 1672. 1946 EMILY GREENE BALCH, former Professor of History and Sociology, Honorary International President Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. JOHN RALEIGH MOTT Chairman of the first International Missionary Council, President of the World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations . 1945 CORDELL HULL Former Secretary of State. One of the initiators of the United Nations. 1944 COMITﾉ INTERNATIONAL DE LA CROIX-ROUGE (INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS) 1943-1939 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1938 OFFICE INTERNATIONAL NANSEN POUR LES RﾉFUGIﾉS (NANSEN INTERNATIONAL OFFICE FOR REFUGEES) an international relief organization in Geneva started by Fridtjof Nansen in 1921. 1937 CECIL OF CHELWOOD, VISCOUNT, (LORD EDGAR ALGERNON ROBERT GASCOYNE CECIL) , Writer, Former Lord Privy Seal. Founder and President of the International Peace Campaign. 1936 CARLOS SAAVEDRA LAMAS Foreign Minister. President of the Soci騁・des Nations (League of Nations), Meditator in a conflict between Paraguay and Bolivia in 1935. 1935 CARL VON OSSIETZKY Journalist (with Die Weltb・ne, among others), pacifist. 1934 ARTHUR HENDERSON Former Foreign Secretary. Chairman of the League of Nations Disarmament Conference 1932-1934. 1933 SIR NORMAN ANGELL (RALPH LANE) Writer. Member of the Commission Ex馗utive de la Soci騁・des Nations (Executive Committee of the League of Nations) and the National Peace Council. Author of the book The Great Illusion, among others. 1932 The prize money for 1932 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1931 JANE ADDAMS Sociologist. International President of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER President of Columbia University. Promoter of the Briand-Kellogg Pact. 1930 LARS OLOF NATHAN (JONATHAN) SﾖDERBLOM Archbishop. Leader of the ecumenical movement. 1929 FRANK BILLINGS KELLOGG Former Secretary of State, Negotiated the Briand-Kellogg Pact. 1928 The prize money for 1928 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1927 FERDINAND BUISSON Former Professor at the Sorbonne University, Paris. Founder and President of the Ligue des Droits de l'Homme (League for Human Rights). LUDWIG QUIDDE Historian. Professor at Berlin University. Member of Germany's constituent assembly 1919. Delegate to numerous peace conferences. 1926 The prize was awarded jointly to: ARISTIDE BRIAND Foreign Minister. Negotiator of the Locarno Treaty and the Briand-Kellogg Pact. GUSTAV STRESEMANN Former Lord High Chancellor (Reichs-kanzler). Foreign Minister. Negotiator of the Locarno Treaty. 1925 SIR AUSTEN CHAMBERLAIN Foreign Minister. Negotiator of the Locarno Treaty. CHARLES GATES DAWES Vice-President of the United States of America. Chairman of the Allied Reparation Commission. Originator of the Dawes Plan . 1924-1923 The prize money for 1924-1923 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1922 FRIDTJOF NANSEN , Norway. Scientist. Explorer. Norwegian Delegate to Soci騁・des Nations (League of Nations). Originator of the Nansen passports (for refugees). 1921 KARL HJALMAR BRANTING Prime Minister. Swedish Delegate to the Conseil de la Soci騁・des Nations (Council of the League of Nations). CHRISTIAN LOUS LANGE Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Brussels. 1920 LﾉON VICTOR AUGUSTE BOURGEOIS, France. Former Secretary of State. President of the Parliament (S駭at). President of the Conseil de la Soci騁・des Nations (Council of the League of Nations) . 1919 THOMAS WOODROW WILSON, President of the United States of America. Founder of the Soci騁・des Nations (League of Nations) 1918 The prize money for 1918 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1917 COMITﾉ INTERNATIONAL DE LA CROIX ROUGE (INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE REDCROSS) , Geneva. 1916-1914 The prize money for 1916-1914 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1913 HENRI LA FONTAINE, Belgium. Member of the Belgian Parliament (S駭ateur). President of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne. 1912 ELIHU ROOT Former Secretary of State. Initiator of several arbitration agreements. 1911 TOBIAS MICHAEL CAREL ASSER, the Netherlands. Cabinet Minister. Member of the Privy Council. Initiator of the International Conferences of Private Law at the Hague. ALFRED HERMANN FRIED, Austria. Journalist. Founder of the peace journal Die Waffen Nieder (later renamed Die Friedenswarte). 1910 BUREAU INTERNATIONAL PERMANENT DE LA PAIX (PERMANENT INTERNATIONAL PEACE BUREAU) , Bern. 1909 AUGUSTE MARIE FRANﾇOIS BEERNAERT, Belgium. Former Prime Minister. Member of the Belgian Parliament. Member of the Cour Internationale d'Arbitrage (International Court of Arbitration) at the Hague. PAUL HENRIBENJAMIN BALLUET D'ESTOURNELLES DE CONSTANT, BARON DE CONSTANT DE REBECQUE, France. Member of the French Parliament (S駭ateur). Founder and President of the French parliamentary group for international arbitration (Groupe parlementaire de l'arbitrage international). Founder of the Comit・de d馭ense des int駻黎snationaux et de conciliation internationale (Committee for the Defense of National Interests and International Conciliation). 1908 KLAS PONTUS ARNOLDSON, Sweden. Writer. Former Member fo the Swedish Parliament. Founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League. FREDRIK BAJER, Denmark. Member of the Danish Parliament. Honorary President of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne. 1907 ERNESTO TEODORO MONETA, Italy. President of the Lombard League of Peace. LOUIS RENAULT, France. Professor International Law, Sorbonne University, Paris. 1906 THEODORE ROOSEVELT, USA. President of the United States of America. Drew up the 1905 peace treaty between Russia and Japan. 1905 BARONESS BERTHA SOPHIE FELICITA VON SUTTNER n馥 COUNTESS KINSKY von CHINIC und TETTAU, Austria. Writer. Hon. President of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne. Author of Die Waffen Nieder (Lay Down Your Arms). 1904 INSTITUT DE DROIT INTERNATIONAL (INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW) , Gent, Belgium. A scientific society. 1903 SIR WILLIAM RANDAL CREMER, Great Britain. Member of the British Parliament. Secretary of the International Arbitration League . 1902 ÉLIE DUCOMMUN, Switzerland. Honorary Secretary of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne. CHARLES ALBERT GOBAT, Switzerland. Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Berne. Honorary Secretary of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne. 1901 JEAN HENRI DUNANT, Switzerland. Founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva; Initiator of the Geneva Convention (Convention de Gen钁e). FRÉDÉRIC PASSY, France. Founder and President of the first French peace society (since 1889 it has been called the Société Francaise pour l'arbitrage entre nations).