Archaeology Neanderthal reconstructed

Discussion in 'Archaeology' started by mscbkc070904, Mar 11, 2005.

  1. mscbkc070904

    mscbkc070904 Premium Member

    Not much to comment on this, but thought I would share it. But the research results will be nice to see in the future of how we once were to what we are now.


     
  2. mscbkc070904

    mscbkc070904 Premium Member

    Neanderthals sang like sopranos

    Interesting theory, maybe back then neanderthals werent so primitive as we think them to be so.


     
  3. parrhesia

    parrhesia Member

    I posted this on Netchickens board in response to this.. why not here :)

    It's been 'known' for some time that Neanderthals were emotionally complex and intelligent. They buried their dead, took care of the lame, and apparently enjoyed decorating themselves. They were expert flint knappers, as well.

    Anyway, this isn't really surprising given the fossil evidence and subsequent theorizing regarding that evidence and the development of language in Hominids.

    From what I've read (extensive amounts), most agree that Neanderthals had rudimentary language skills, perhaps even close to our own. There's really no other explanation for their contruction of elaborate tools and the hunting of large game, which requires strategy and cooperation, which also requires some form of language.

    A while back they discovered a hyoid bone from a Neanderthal (the hyoid bone supports the laraynx) and it was actually identical to the hyoid bone of a human, it's also been said by many that the tongue was just as dexterous as that of the later #@!&% spaiens, and this indicates frequent, as well as fluent speech. Even more recently the width of the Neanderthal hypoglossal canal, which carries the nerves that control the tongue through the base of the skull) were discovered to lie within the range of modern #@!&% sapiens.

    Take from it what you will, I guess we'll never know exactly when modern language came to be, but these are good ways to start the search for those interested.

    Up To #@!&% Neanderthalensis, the breathing apparatus in #@!&% Erectus, fpr instance, was not suitable for modern language. Aspiration could not be controlled, so the sounds of primitive language (and it's generally agreed that there was a very basic language) consisted of short, perhaps meaningful utterances. Long complicated utterances, as we know them, were anatomically impossible.

    Anyway, as for the pitch of the Neanderthals voice.. I'm looking forward to reading this new information. It sounds really interesting, and the thought that they may have high pitched voices and also song in both entertaining and plausible from what I know already.
     
  4. malik

    malik Premium Member

    Hi, I am not very familiar with the hominid evolution or the origins of #@!&% sapiens but I just wanted to know what is the difference between Cro Magnon and a Neanderthal? I thought the Cro Magnon were after the Neanderthal! And if the Neanderthal are now considered to be more intelligent then previously thought than why did they disappear so quickly?:puz:
     
  5. mscbkc070904

    mscbkc070904 Premium Member

    Hominid Species

    Ardipithecus ramidus

    This species is the oldest known hominid, dated at 4.4 million years ago. It was announced in September of 1994. A few fragmentary skull remains were found in Ethiopia, Africa. Due to the lack of fossil material found, scientists do not know much about this species.

    Characteristics:

    • ape-like with long, curved phalanges (fingers and toes)

    • chimp-like teeth, including large canines

    • premolars and molars

    • thin tooth enamel

    The importance of this hominid is that scientists believe it to be forest dwelling, which counter-argues the theory that hominids became bipedal because they moved to a savanna environment.

    Australopithecus anamensis

    This genus of hominid, scientists believe, is the link between Ardipithecus ramidus and the #@!&% genus. Their gracile skulls and the transformation from ape-like features to modern human features characterize this particular group.

    This species existed from 4.2 - 3.9 million years ago. It was found by Meave Leakey in East Africa and was named in August of 1995.

    Characteristics:

    • reduced pointy canines

    • thick tooth enamel

    • more upright posture

    • fingers long and curved

    • diastema (the space between the teeth that allows the mouth to close)

    • prognathic (elongated face)

    Australopithecus afarensis

    A. afarensis existed from 4-3 million years ago. It was found in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Kenya.

    Characteristics

    • cranial capacity of 430 - 440 ml

    • slight saggital crest

    • megadont (huge) teeth

    • very prognathic

    • ape-like, long, curve phalanges

    The most famous fossil evidence is

    1) The Laeotoli Footprints found by Mary Leakey. These footprints were evidence of bipedalism. They had defining characteristics such as a strong heel strike, splayed toes, and a slight arch.

    2) "Lucy" is the most well known fossil in the world today. Donald Johanson found her in Afar, Ethiopia in 1978. Lucy is the center of many debates. When this fossil was found, it was amongst a group of other A. afarensis. After studying all of the individuals, Johanson believes that this species is sexually dimorphic. Sexual dimorphism is the difference in size between males and females. In this case, the males seem to be more robust, are prognathic, and have bigger canines.

    Australopithecus bahrelghazali

    This hominid existed from 3.5 to 3 million years ago. Not much is known about A. bahrelghazali. Its jaw and teeth were similar to A. afarensis but it had a "modern" chin. The important feature of this species is that it was found in Chad, Africa, an area where virtually no hominid fossils have been found.

    Australopithecus africanus

    This species existed from 3.0-2.3 million years ago. It was found in South Africa.

    Characteristics:

    • cranial capacity of 440-480ml

    • no saggital crest

    • smaller canines than A. afarensis

    • no diastema

    • not as prognathic as A. afarensis

    • ape-like arms and legs (arms longer than legs)

    There are three famous fossils:

    1) "Taung Baby" was found by Raymond Dart in 1924. It was the first hominid found. This was a significant find because it was the first evidence that our origins began in Africa.


    2) "Little Foot" was found in Sterkfontein, South Africa by Ron Clark. Clark found this fossil stashed in a box and reassembled it.

    3) "Mrs. Ples" was found by Robert Broom. She was conclusive evidence that our origins did indeed begin in Africa. It should also be noted that Mrs. Ples is really Mr. Ples.

    Australopithecus garhi

    A. garhi existed 2.5 million years ago. Tim White and Berhame Asfaw found it in Bouri, East Ethiopia.

    Characteristics:

    • cranial capacity of 450ml.

    • canines and premolars like #@!&% genus

    • huge molars

    • no diastema

    • prognathic

    • ape-like arms and legs

    The importance of this hominid is that it was found with many tools and an array of slaughtered animals. Tool use has been the defining criteria that separated the #@!&% genus from the Australopithecines.
     
  6. mscbkc070904

    mscbkc070904 Premium Member

    Paranthropus

    Paranthtropus are a group of hominids that existed at the same time as the Australopithecines and some species of the #@!&% genus. It is believed that the Paranthropus species evolved on their own and had no part in the evolution of the #@!&% genus. Some Paranthropus features are robust skulls and huge flat molars used for grinding.

    Paranthropus aethiopicus (the black skull)

    This species existed from 2.8 - 2.2 million years ago. It was found in Kenya, Ethiopia, and South Africa.



    Characteristics:

    • oldest of the Paranthropus

    • most robust

    • cranial capacity of 410m

    • enormous saggital crest

    • huge teeth and molars (six times larger than our own)

    • most prognathic

    Paranthropus robustus

    This species existed from 2.2-1.5 million years ago. The first fossil was found by a schoolboy in Kromdraai, Africa.



    Characteristics:

    • cranial capacity of 520ml

    • huge jaws

    • saggital crest

    • big pre-molars and molars

    • flat molars

    Paranthropus boisei

    P. boisei existed 2.2-1.0 million years ago. It was found inthe grassland habitats of Kenya, Ethiopia, and Tanzania.



    Characteristics:

    • cranial capacity of 520ml

    • huge jaws

    • saggital crest

    • big pre-molars and molars

    • flat molars
     
  7. mscbkc070904

    mscbkc070904 Premium Member

    #@!&% Genus

    The #@!&% genus is separated from the earlier hominids because of the emergence of tool use, language, and culture.

    The genus begins about 2.3 million years ago. The characteristics of these species are bigger brain (above 1000ml), the forehead rises straight up, the skull becomes rounder, the teeth are reduced, arms are shorter and legs are longer, and the skeleton becomes more delicate.

    #@!&% habilis / #@!&% rudolfensis

    These species existed 2.3-1.6 million years ago. They were found in Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, South Africa, and China. These hominids are considered the first tool users. They used tools that were chips of rock called Oldowan tools.

    Characteristics:

    • cranial capacity of 630ml

    • smaller back teeth

    • gracile skulls and skeletons

    • less prognathic

    • flatter face

    • forehead begins to rise straight up

    • no brow ridge

    • no postorbital constriction (indentation behind the orbits of a skull)

    • arm still long

    Scientist have debated over whether H. habilis and H. rudolfensis should be separated or not. H. rudolfensis was found in Koobi Fora, Kenya and lived 1.6 million years ago. Its characteristics are a cranial capacity of 750 ml, postorbital constriction, and no brow ridge. Although the characteristics of H. rudolfensis differ slightly from the characteristics stated above scientist still hesitate to separate them, because there is so much variation within H. habilis that they do not know where to draw the line.

    #@!&% erectus / #@!&% ergaster

    H. erectus existed 1.8-27,000 years ago and H. ergaster existed 1.8-1.5 million years ago. The separation between the two species is that H. erectus was found in Asia and H. ergaster was found in Africa. Other than that the two share the same characteristics.

    Characteristics:

    • cranial capacity of 800-1100ml

    • sloping forehead

    • big brow ridge

    • large orbits, nasal openings, and face

    • saggital keeling (like the keel of a boat found on the top of the skull)

    • postorbital constriction

    • sulcus (a depression behind the orbits)

    • thick cranium

    • occipital bunning (a slight bulge of the back of the skull)

    Important Finds:

    1) This species was found with a different type of tool called Achuelian tools. These tools were more advanced than the Oldowan tools. Both sides of the rock were worked on to make the tool sharp and it gave the tool a tear drop shape. These tools were used for many tasks such as chopping, scraping, and cutting.

    2) There is some evidence that this species may have used fire.

    3) One of the major fossils found is a skull cap found in Java, Indonesia. In 1891 Eugene Dubois found this fossil at a time when people wanted to believe that our origins did not begin in Africa. Therefore they were hoping to find that our origins started in Java.

    4) Another major fossil found was the Turkana Boy. This fossil is one of the most complete #@!&% skeletons found. The specimen was found in West Turkana Lake in Africa. Some important features about it is that it was stronger than Anatomically Modern #@!&% sapiens and that he had a narrow spinal cord, which may have inhibited speech.

    Archaic #@!&% sapiens

    These species first appeared around 800,000 years ago. "Archaic" describes a diverse group of hominids between H. erectus and "modern " humans. The brain size is larger than H. erectus, but smaller than most "modern" humans. The skull is also more round than H. erectus. The skeleton and teeth are less robust than H. erectus, but more so than "modern " humans. These species still have large brow ridges and receding foreheads and chins. There is no clear dividing line between these species.

    #@!&% antecessor

    This species existed 800,000 years ago and was found in Spain.

    Characteristics:

    • cranial capacity of 1100ml

    • "modern" face

    • "archaic" back of head

    This species is the oldest known hominid found in Western Europe, It was found with Achuelian tools and some evidence of cannibalism.

    #@!&% heidelbergensis

    This hominid existed 500,000-100,000 years ago. It has been found in Europe, Africa, India, and China.

    Characteristics:

    • cranial capacity of 1000-1300ml

    • big frontal lobes (giving it the capacity for speech)

    • robust skeleton

    This species was found in association with a new type of Achuelian tool. The tools were made with what is called the Levallois technique. The hominid worked on the rock from the middle out on both sides.

    #@!&% neanderthalensis

    This species existed 130,000 to 25,000 years ago. Some scientists propose to push back the date to as far as 225,000 years ago. This species has been found in Europe, East Asia, and the Middle East.

    Characteristics:

    • cranial capacity of 1,300-1,750ml

    • double arch brow ridge

    • sloping forehead

    • high, wide, nasal openings

    • inflated maxilla & cheek bones

    • no prognathism

    • no chin

    • retromolar gap (a gap behind the 3rd molar)

    • big long incisors

    • taurodontism (roots of the molars are fused)

    • occipital bunning

    • smaller frontal bones & more of a bulge on the sides of the skull

    • mastoid process small

    • oval shape foramen magnum (the opening at the bottom of the skull where the vertebrate column connects)

    • robust skeletons

    • big arm and leg bones

    • wide toes and fingers

    • short stature (avg. 5'5")

    • barrel-shaped rib cage

    H. neanderthalensis was found with a more advanced set of Achuelian tools called Mousterian tools. These tools are considered more advanced because more work was put into detailing them with animal bones and horns. Mousterian tools were the first tools to be hafted, that is to have handles. There were 63 different types of these tools.

    Currently, anthropologists are debating over whether H. neanderthalensis is an animal or a sophisticate. Some anthropologists believe that H. neanderthalensis are sophisticates because of the following characteristics:

    • sophisticated tools

    • burial sites with tools, animal bones & horns & flowers

    • cared for the disabled

    • clothes

    • shelters

    • culture: clan of the cave bear

    • art and music

    Those anthropologists that claim that H. neanderthalensis are animals do so for the following reasons:

    • They do not recognize the evidence for art, music, shelters, clothing, or caring for the dead

    • They believe that the objects found in the burial sites were there by chance

    • The anthropologists agree that the species had more advanced tools, but they did not know how to use them, resulting in many injuries.

    Both groups of anthropologists have valid arguments, readers will have to draw their own conclusions.

    Anatomically Modern #@!&% sapiens (AMHS)

    This species existed 200,000 years ago- present. They were/are found in Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia, North America, and South America.



    Characteristics:

    • cranial capacity of 1400m

    • vertical forehead

    • round cranium

    • thin skull

    • no occipital bunning

    • large mastoid process

    • sunken in maxilla and cheekbones

    • "small" brow ridge

    • chin

    • small front teeth

    • no retromolar gap

    • "delicate" postcranial skeleton

    • taller than H. neanderthals

    • smaller chest cavity, than H. neanderthalensis

    Many of the features of AMHS overlap with other hominid species, therefore Miffed H. Wolf devised a list of characteristics that define AMHS. The characteristics are:

    • growth in standardization and diversity of artifacts

    • rapid increase in artifact change overtime

    • first to shape bone, ivory, shell, and other non-stone materials

    • art

    • actual ruins/camps

    • transport/trade stone tools across hundreds of miles

    • solid evidence of ceremonies

    • ability to survive in extreme cold

    • increase population density

    • first evidence of fishing

    One of the interesting features of AMHS is that they AR associated with five tool industries.

    1. Aurignacion Industry (40,000-28,000 years ago)

    • tools: end scrapers, burins, and distinctive bone points

    • first Venus figurines

    • cave paintings

    2. Chatelperronian Industry (40,000-28,000 years ago)

    • tools: Mousterian type tools with blade and bone

    • H. neanderthalensis were also known to use these tools

    3. Gravettian Industry (28,000-22,000 years ago)

    • tools: beveled bone points that served as spear points and backed blades

    • ivory beads

    • Venus figurines

    4. Solutrean Industry (21,000-19,000 years ago)

    • tools: bifacially flaked, leaf-shaped knives that were heated over a flame to prevent cracking

    5. Magdalenian Industry (18,000-12,000 years ago)

    • tools: microliths, arrows, barbed harpoons, spear throwers made out of bone, wood or antler.

    • extensive wall art

    Source: www.humboldt.com

    [Edited on 3-20-2005 by mscbkc070904]
     
  8. mscbkc070904

    mscbkc070904 Premium Member

    Did Use of Free Trade Cause Neanderthal Extinction?

    Source: University of Wyoming Released: Thu 24-Mar-2005, 11:20 ET

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    Did Use of Free Trade Cause Neanderthal Extinction?
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    Economics-free trade may have contributed to the extinction of Neanderthals 30,000-40,000 years ago, according to a paper.



    Newswise — Economics-free trade may have contributed to the extinction of Neanderthals 30,000-40,000 years ago, according to a paper published in the “Journal of Economic Organization and Behavior.”

    “After at least 200,000 years of eking out an existence in glacial Eurasia, the Neanderthal suddenly went extinct,” writes University of Wyoming economist Jason Shogren, along with colleagues Richard Horan of Michigan State University and Erwin Bulte from Tilburg University in the Netherlands. “Early modern humans arriving on the scene shortly before are suspected to have been the perpetrator, but exactly how they caused Neanderthal extinction is unknown.”

    Creating a new kind of caveman economics in their published paper, they argue early modern humans were first to exploit the competitive edge gained from specialization and free trade. With more reliance on free trade, humans increased their activities in culture and technology, while simultaneously out-competing Neanderthals on their joint hunting grounds, the economists say.

    Archaeological evidence exists to suggest traveling bands of early humans interacted with each other and that inter-group trading emerged, says Shogren. Early humans, the Aurignations and the Gravettians, imported many raw materials over long ranges and their innovations were widely dispersed. Such exchanges of goods and ideas helped early humans to develop “supergroup social mechanisms.” The long-range interchange among different groups kept both cultures going and generated new cultural explosions, Shogren says.

    Anthropologists have noted how judicious redistribution of excess resources provides a distinct advantage to “efficient hunters” as measured by factors such as increased survivorship, social prestige, or reproductive opportunities, the researchers say.

    “One of the striking features of the archaeological record is that Neanderthal technology was nearly stationary for many thousands of years whereas technology of early humans experienced many innovations,” Shogren says.

    He says the evidence does not support the concept of division of labor and trade among Neanderthals. While Neanderthals probably cooperated with one another to some extent, the evidence does not support the view that specialization arose from any formal division of labor or that inter- or intra-group trade existed, he says. These practices seem to require all the things that Neanderthals lacked: a more complicated social organization, a degree of innovative behavior, forward planning and the exchange of information, ideas and raw materials.

    “Basic economic forces of scarcity and relative costs and benefits have played integral roles in shaping societies throughout recorded human history,” Shogren says. “No reason exists today to discount either the presence or potential impact of economics in the pre-historic dawning of humanity.”